JE virus is transmitted to humans mainly through the bite of an infected Culex mosquito. The virus host is primarily pigs and wading birds. Therefore, vaccination should be considered for travellers who are visiting endemic rural or agricultural areas during high-risk periods of JE virus transmission.
Vaccine should be considered for short-term (<1 month) travel to endemic areas and where activities during travel are likely to increase the risk of JE virus exposure, such as:
• Spending substantial time outdoors in rural or agricultural areas, especially during the evening or night
• Participating in extensive outdoor activities (such as camping, hiking, trekking, biking, fishing, hunting, or farming)
• Staying in accommodations without air conditioning, screens, or bed nets
• Travel to an area with an ongoing JE outbreak
• Travel to endemic areas and travellers who are uncertain of specific destinations, activities, or duration of travel JE vaccine is not recommended for short-term travel where visits are restricted to urban areas or if the travel period falls outside of well-defined JE virus transmission season. Cross Street Medical
offers vaccination for Japanese Encephalitis. Speak to our doctors about what you may need. Female doctors are available by appointment.
Most human infections with JE virus are asymptomatic; <1% of people infected with JE virus develop clinical disease. Acute encephalitis is the most commonly recognised clinical manifestation of JE virus infection. Milder forms of disease, such as aseptic meningitis or undifferentiated febrile illness can also occur. The incubation period is 5–15 days. Illness usually begins with sudden onset of fever, headache, and vomiting. Mental status changes, focal neurologic deficits, generalized weakness, and movement disorders may develop over the next few days.
• Mask-like facies
• Cogwheel rigidity
• Choreoathetoid movements
• Acute flaccid paralysis
• Seizures are common, especially among children
The risk of death is 20%–30%.
Among survivors, 30%–50% have serious neurologic, cognitive, or psychiatric symptoms.
Laboratory diagnosis of JE virus infection is required. Suspected cases will be referred to hospital for screening and treatment.
There is no specific antiviral treatment for JE; therapy consists of supportive care and management of complications.